Popular Science of Equipment-Types and Working Principles of Pi

  • Original Title: Popular Science of Equipment-Types and Working Principles of Pile Drivers (Hot Spots) Good evening, everyone. Recently, there was a piece of news saying that the Shenzhen subway tunnel was pierced by a pile driver, and the train crashed into the broken pile head and was seriously damaged. So this issue of Xiaobian is a hot spot, popularizing the science of this pile driver, and introducing the types and working principles of the pile driver: 1. Screw pile driver Screw pile machine is mainly composed of power head, drill pipe, column, hydraulic walking chassis, slewing structure, winch, operation room, electrical system, hydraulic system, consignment mechanism, etc. In the working state, by operating the hydraulic system, it can realize the alignment of walking, slewing, lifting and lowering the column and the pile driver. During operation, the power head drives the drill rod and the drill bit to rotate, the winch controls the lifting of the drilling tool, and the soil cut by the drill is conveyed to the ground by the spiral blade. When drilling to the design depth, the drill can be lifted to form a hole. According to the requirements of the construction method, the pile can also be formed by injecting concrete (or mud) while lifting the drill. 2. Diesel hammer pile driver The main body of the diesel hammer pile driver is also composed of a cylinder and a plunger. Its working principle is similar to that of a single-cylinder two-stroke diesel engine. The hammer is driven to work by the strong pressure generated by the explosion of the atomized diesel injected into the combustion chamber of the cylinder under high pressure and high temperature. Diesel hammers are divided into two types: guide rod type and barrel type. Barrel-type diesel hammer uses the reciprocating motion of the core (upper piston or impact body) to hammer piles; two-guide-rod diesel hammer uses the fixed piston and the reciprocating motion of the cylinder body as the impact body to hammer piles, which has been gradually eliminated because of its short hammering energy and service life. Barrel diesel pile hammers are now widely used. Especially for the cylinder diesel hammer produced in recent years, the oil supply throttle is divided into four gears, the first gear is the smallest and the fourth gear is the largest. When piling, the second and third gears are generally used, which is easy for the operator to master and the hammering energy is easy to estimate. 3. Board inserting machine Plate inserting machine is a new type of piling machine, which is mainly used in the field of coastal soft foundation treatment and land reclamation. After the plate inserting machine is in place, the vibration hammer is aligned with the Jack position to sink, the drainage plate passes through the sleeve and is connected with the anchor shoe at the end, the sleeve props against the anchor shoe to insert the drainage plate to the designed depth in the soil, after the sleeve is pulled up, the anchor shoe and the drainage plate are left in the soil together, and then the continuous drainage plate is sheared to complete the operation of inserting the plate in a drainage hole. Today, the board inserting machine is popular in the world to reclaim land from the sea, and it can play its advantages more and more. The soft foundation must be treated before it can be used, so the board inserting machine still occupies a place in the future construction industry. 4. Vibrating pile hammer Vibrating pile hammer is a kind of equipment which can produce strong exciting force to drive objects into the ground after being electrified. The motor drives the pair of eccentric blocks to rotate in opposite directions, so that the transverse centrifugal forces generated by the pair of eccentric blocks are mutually offset, the vertical centrifugal forces are mutually superposed, and the gearbox is vertically vibrated up and down through the high-speed rotation of the eccentric wheel, thereby achieving the purpose of pile sinking. Vibrating pile hammer is a kind of pile foundation construction machinery used in construction engineering, which is used in the construction of concrete cast-in-place pile. When it is matched with the pile frame, it can be used to sink concrete cast-in-place pile, concrete under-reamed pile (garlic pile), lime pile, sand pile and gravel pile; when it is matched with the pile gripper, it can be used to sink and pull out concrete precast pile and various steel piles. It is an ideal equipment for highway, bridge, airport, building and other foundation construction. In addition, the vibratory pile hammer can also be used as a pile driving hammer for vibratory pipe-sinking pile machine, plate inserting machine and other machines. Vibratory pile hammer will be mainly used in the construction of vibratory pipe-sinking piles in the future, which is a trend, especially the application of high-power vibratory hammers such as 60, 75 and 90, which will replace some vibratory hammers with large amplitude and strong noise. 5. Rotary drilling rig Rotary drilling rig is a kind of construction machinery suitable for pore-forming operation in building foundation engineering. It is mainly suitable for the construction of sandy soil, cohesive soil, silty soil and other soil layers, and is widely used in the construction of cast-in-place piles, diaphragm walls, foundation reinforcement and other foundations. The rated power of the rotary drilling rig is generally 125 ~ 450kW, the power output torque is 120 ~ 400kN · m,rock drilling tools, the maximum hole diameter can reach 1.5 ~ 4 m, and the maximum hole depth is 60 ~ 90 m. It can meet the requirements of various large-scale foundation construction. This kind of drilling rig is generally equipped with hydraulic crawler-type telescopic chassis, self-lifting foldable drilling mast, telescopic drill pipe, automatic detection and adjustment of verticality, digital display of hole depth, etc. The whole machine is generally controlled by hydraulic pilot control and load sensing, which is easy and comfortable to operate. The main winch and the auxiliary winch can meet the requirements of various situations on the construction site. With different drilling tools, this kind of drilling rig is suitable for dry (short auger) or wet (rotary bucket) and rock formation (core drill) pore-forming operations. It can also be equipped with long auger, diaphragm wall grab, vibratory pile hammer, etc., to achieve a variety of functions. It is mainly used for municipal construction, highway bridges, industrial and civil buildings, diaphragm walls, water conservancy, anti-seepage slope protection and other foundation construction. Domestic experts believe that there will still be a large market for rotary drilling rigs in China in the next few years. 6. Down-the-hole drill The essence of down-the-hole drilling is to submerge the impactor into the hole in the process of drilling, so as to reduce the energy loss caused by the transmission of impact work by the drill rod, thereby reducing the impact of hole depth on drilling efficiency. Drilling machines are divided into rock drills and drilling rigs, and drilling rigs are divided into open-air drilling rigs and underground drilling rigs. In recent years, the famous foreign down-the-hole drill manufacturing companies have launched a series of new products. The common feature of these equipments is that the degree of automation is getting higher and higher, and some functions are realized. The application of iGPS technology on these drilling rigs realizes the automatic positioning of boom,dth button bits, saves the time of field marking and positioning, improves the operation efficiency, and enables operators to concentrate on monitoring the drilling process. At the same time, more attention should be paid to the improvement of safety, environmental protection and man-machine relationship. 7. Horizontal directional drilling rig Horizontal directional drilling machine is a kind of construction machinery for laying a variety of underground utilities (pipelines, cables, etc.) Without excavating the ground surface. It is widely used in the construction of water supply, electric power, telecommunications, natural gas, coal gas, oil and other pipeline laying. It is suitable for sandy soil, clay, pebbles and other conditions. It can be used in most non-hard rock areas in China. Horizontal directional drilling technology is a new construction technology which combines the directional drilling technology of the petroleum industry with the traditional pipeline construction method. It has the advantages of high construction speed, high construction precision and low cost. It is widely used in the pipeline laying construction projects of water supply, gas, electricity, telecommunications, natural gas, oil and so on. 8. Direct and reverse circulation drilling rig The positive and negative circulation drilling machine is a drilling machine that uses the mud pump to suck out the mud carrying rock debris from the bottom of the hole. The direct and reverse circulation drilling rig is widely used in the construction of subway foundation pit and high-rise building foundation pit. As the hole is formed by adopting the slurry wall protection, the noise is low when the hole is formed. 9. Percussion drill Percussive drilling machine is an important drilling machine in the construction of cast-in-place pile foundation, which uses the impact force of the drill bit to drill holes in the rock stratum. It can adapt to different geological conditions, especially in the pebble layer. Compared with other types of drilling rigs, the impact drilling rig has stronger adaptability. At the same time, a layer of dense soil is formed around the hole wall after the hole is drilled by a percussion drill, which has a certain effect on stabilizing the hole wall and improving the bearing capacity of the pile foundation. 10. Gravel pile machine In the soft soil foundation treatment methods, there is a new construction method to replace the vibro-replacement stone column, the construction technology of vibro-sinking and compacting stone column. For the vibrating immersed tube gravel pile machine, the pile frame is hung with a vibrating hammer, which is started by the motor. The immersed tube is vibrated into the soil by the vibrating force of the vibrating hammer. After reaching the standard height, the concrete is poured. (There is a feeding port on the immersed tube, and the feeding hopper is lifted by the winch of the pile machine.) While pouring, the tube is pulled out by vibration, and the concrete is vibrated and compacted to the elevation. As a large pile driver, the vibrating immersed tube gravel pile driver has several types, such as walking tube type, walking type and crawler type, and its power is commonly known as 60, 75, 90, 110, 120 and even 150 types. The model shall be selected according to the pile diameter, pile length and geological conditions required by the design. Vibratory sinking tube gravel compaction pile has been widely used in soft soil foundation treatment because of its simple equipment, convenient operation, dth rock bit ,mining dth bit, low cost, fast construction and no pollution. Finally, let's put a few videos of pile driver construction, which is more straightforward: Expand the full text Good evening, everyone. Recently, there was a piece of news saying that the Shenzhen subway tunnel was pierced by a pile driver, and the train crashed into the broken pile head and was seriously damaged. So this issue of Xiaobian is a hot spot, popularizing the science of this pile driver, and introducing the types and working principles of the pile driver: 1. Screw pile driver Screw pile machine is mainly composed of power head, drill pipe, column, hydraulic walking chassis, slewing structure, winch, operation room, electrical system, hydraulic system, consignment mechanism, etc. In the working state, by operating the hydraulic system, it can realize the alignment of walking, slewing, lifting and lowering the column and the pile driver. During operation, the power head drives the drill rod and the drill bit to rotate, the winch controls the lifting of the drilling tool, and the soil cut by the drill is conveyed to the ground by the spiral blade. When drilling to the design depth, the drill can be lifted to form a hole. According to the requirements of the construction method, the pile can also be formed by injecting concrete (or mud) while lifting the drill. 2. Diesel hammer pile driver The main body of the diesel hammer pile driver is also composed of a cylinder and a plunger. Its working principle is similar to that of a single-cylinder two-stroke diesel engine. The hammer is driven to work by the strong pressure generated by the explosion of the atomized diesel injected into the combustion chamber of the cylinder under high pressure and high temperature. Diesel hammers are divided into two types: guide rod type and barrel type. Barrel-type diesel hammer uses the reciprocating motion of the core (upper piston or impact body) to hammer piles; two-guide-rod diesel hammer uses the fixed piston and the reciprocating motion of the cylinder body as the impact body to hammer piles, which has been gradually eliminated because of its short hammering energy and service life. Barrel diesel pile hammers are now widely used. Especially for the cylinder diesel hammer produced in recent years, the oil supply throttle is divided into four gears, the first gear is the smallest and the fourth gear is the largest. When piling, the second and third gears are generally used, which is easy for the operator to master and the hammering energy is easy to estimate. 3. Board inserting machine Plate inserting machine is a new type of piling machine, which is mainly used in the field of coastal soft foundation treatment and land reclamation construction. After the plate inserting machine is in place, the vibration hammer is aligned with the Jack position to sink, the drainage plate passes through the sleeve and is connected with the anchor shoe at the end, the sleeve pushes against the anchor shoe to insert the drainage plate to the designed depth in the soil, after the sleeve is pulled up, the anchor shoe and the drainage plate are left in the soil together, and then the continuous drainage plate is cut off to complete the operation of inserting the plate in a drainage hole. Today, the board inserting machine is popular in the world to reclaim land from the sea, and it can play its advantages more and more. The soft foundation must be treated before it can be used, so the board inserting machine still occupies a place in the future construction industry. 4. Vibrating pile hammer Vibrating pile hammer is a kind of equipment which can produce strong exciting force to drive objects into the ground after being electrified. The motor drives the pair of eccentric blocks to rotate in opposite directions, so that the transverse centrifugal forces generated by the pair of eccentric blocks are mutually counteracted, the vertical centrifugal forces are mutually superposed, and the gearbox is vertically vibrated up and down through the high-speed rotation of the eccentric wheel, thereby achieving the purpose of pile sinking. Vibrating pile hammer is a kind of pile foundation construction machinery used in construction engineering, which is used in the construction of concrete cast-in-place pile. When it is matched with the pile frame, it can be used to sink concrete cast-in-place pile, concrete under-reamed pile (garlic pile), lime pile, sand pile and gravel pile; when it is matched with the pile gripper, it can be used to sink and pull out concrete precast pile and various steel piles. It is an ideal equipment for highway, bridge, airport, building and other foundation construction. In addition, the vibratory pile hammer can also be used as a pile driving hammer for vibratory pipe-sinking pile machine, plate inserting machine and other machines. Vibratory pile hammer will be mainly used in the construction of vibratory pipe-sinking piles in the future, which is a trend, especially the application of high-power vibratory hammers such as 60, 75 and 90, which will replace some vibratory hammers with large amplitude and strong noise. 5. Rotary drilling rig Rotary drilling rig is a kind of construction machinery suitable for pore-forming operation in building foundation engineering. It is mainly suitable for the construction of sandy soil, cohesive soil, silty soil and other soil layers, and is widely used in the construction of cast-in-place piles, diaphragm walls, foundation reinforcement and other foundations. The rated power of the rotary drilling rig is generally 125 ~ 450kW, the power output torque is 120 ~ 400kN · m, the maximum hole diameter can reach 1.5 ~ 4 m, and the maximum hole depth is 60 ~ 90 m. It can meet the requirements of various large-scale foundation construction. This kind of drilling rig is generally equipped with hydraulic crawler-type telescopic chassis, self-lifting foldable drilling mast, telescopic drill pipe, automatic detection and adjustment of verticality, digital display of hole depth, etc. The whole machine is generally controlled by hydraulic pilot control and load sensing, which is easy and comfortable to operate. The main winch and the auxiliary winch can meet the requirements of various situations on the construction site. With different drilling tools, this kind of drilling rig is suitable for dry (short auger) or wet (rotary bucket) and rock formation (core drill) pore-forming operations. It can also be equipped with long auger, diaphragm wall grab, vibratory pile hammer, etc., to achieve a variety of functions. It is mainly used for municipal construction, highway bridges, industrial and civil buildings, diaphragm walls, water conservancy, anti-seepage slope protection and other foundation construction. Domestic experts believe that there will still be a large market for rotary drilling rigs in China in the next few years. 6. Down-the-hole drill The essence of down-the-hole drilling is to submerge the impactor into the hole in the process of drilling, so as to reduce the energy loss caused by the transmission of impact work by the drill rod, thereby reducing the impact of hole depth on drilling efficiency. Drilling machines are divided into rock drills and drilling rigs, and drilling rigs are divided into open-air drilling rigs and underground drilling rigs. In recent years, the famous foreign down-the-hole drill manufacturing companies have launched a series of new products. The common feature of these equipments is that the degree of automation is getting higher and higher, and some functions are realized. The application of iGPS technology on these drilling rigs realizes the automatic positioning of boom, saves the time of field marking and positioning, improves the operation efficiency, and enables operators to concentrate on monitoring the drilling process. At the same time, more attention should be paid to the improvement of safety, environmental protection and man-machine relationship. 7. Horizontal directional drilling rig Horizontal directional drilling machine is a kind of construction machinery for laying a variety of underground utilities (pipelines, cables, etc.) Without excavating the ground surface. It is widely used in the construction of water supply, electric power, telecommunications, natural gas, coal gas, oil and other pipeline laying. It is suitable for sandy soil, clay, pebbles and other conditions. It can be used in most non-hard rock areas in China. Horizontal directional drilling technology is a new construction technology which combines the directional drilling technology of the petroleum industry with the traditional pipeline construction method. It has the advantages of high construction speed, high construction precision and low cost. It is widely used in the pipeline laying construction projects of water supply, gas, electricity, telecommunications, natural gas, oil and so on. 8. Direct and reverse circulation drilling rig The positive and negative circulation drilling machine is a drilling machine that uses the mud pump to suck out the mud carrying rock debris from the bottom of the hole. The direct and reverse circulation drilling rig is widely used in the construction of subway foundation pit and high-rise building foundation pit. As the hole is formed by adopting the slurry wall protection, the noise is low when the hole is formed. 9. Percussion drill Percussive drilling machine is an important drilling machine in the construction of cast-in-place pile foundation, which uses the impact force of the drill bit to drill holes in the rock stratum. It can adapt to different geological conditions, especially in the pebble layer. Compared with other types of drilling rigs, the impact drilling rig has stronger adaptability. At the same time, a layer of dense soil is formed around the hole wall after the hole is drilled by a percussion drill, which has a certain effect on stabilizing the hole wall and improving the bearing capacity of the pile foundation. 10. Gravel pile machine In the soft soil foundation treatment methods, there is a new construction method to replace the vibro-replacement stone column, the construction technology of vibro-sinking tube compaction stone column. For the vibrating immersed tube gravel pile machine, the pile frame is hung with a vibrating hammer, which is started by the motor. The immersed tube is vibrated into the soil by the vibrating force of the vibrating hammer. After reaching the standard height, the concrete is poured. (There is a feeding port on the immersed tube, and the feeding hopper is lifted by the winch of the pile machine.) While pouring, the tube is pulled out by vibration, and the concrete is vibrated and compacted to the elevation. As a large pile driver, the vibrating immersed tube gravel pile driver has several types, such as walking tube type, walking type and crawler type, and its power is commonly known as 60, 75, 90, 110, 120 and even 150 types. The model shall be selected according to the pile diameter, pile length and geological conditions required by the design. Vibratory sinking tube gravel compaction pile has been widely used in soft soil foundation treatment because of its simple equipment, convenient operation, low cost,dth drill bits, fast construction and no pollution. Finally, let's put a few videos of pile driver construction, which is more straightforward: END Source: Baidu Library Push Return to Sohu to see more Responsible Editor:. wt-dthtools.com